Used to describe cheeses with a sour/acidic taste such as fresh goats cheese.
Smell of the cheese, pungent (strong) or sweet.
Not to be confused with acidic, no cheese should ever have an ammonia (bleachy) smell/taste. Washed rinds can be very stinky but should never have an ammonia smell.
Do not eat ammonia smelling cheeses, these are bad!
A natural food colourant derived from the Annatto berry, from the Achiote tree found in South America.
Refers to the process of maturing cheeses.
A specialist person who matures cheeses to the peak of their perfection. Herve Mons is one of France’s most respected Affineurs.
The process of moving animals and herds people to the spring and summer time grazing areas.
Or cheeses that have been made with spring and or summer time milks e.g Beaufort d’Alpage.
Apppellation d’Origine, the French body that controls the cheese making regulations.
When the cheese is perfectly ripe to eat.
Hand made cheese rather than machine produced.
Type of mould we see on Brie and Camembert style cheeses.
Blue mould found in all blue cheeses and some aged hard cheeses.
French word for Sheep.
Cheese in shape of a brick.
Term for cheeses displaying strong farm related aromas.
A ‘good’ type of bacteria encouraged by washing cheeses. Found in washed rind cheeses and responsible for the strong smell.
Also the bacteria responsible for smelly feet! So yes, that cheese does smell like old socks!
Salt water solution often used to wash cheeses.
Where cheese is made in Mountain chalets.
Italian for goat´s cheese.
Main protein in milk.
Cheese which is coated in ash, usually vegetable ash these days.
Process of making cheddar. Curds are cut and pressed 2-3 times before being layered in slabs and pressed on a cheddar machine making rice sized curds.
A cloth, having either a course or fine texture, used to drain cheese curds or line cheese molds.
A corer, that takes a cross section out of a cheese to test for aroma, texture and flavour.
French word for goats cheese.
Process of setting the milk to make a cheese, usually with a rennet.
A facet of cheese making, when cut curd is heated to expel more whey.
After the setting, the milk separates into solids (curds) and liquid. (whey)
Remaining solids after the whey has drained from the cheese. This is when the fat content is measured, 30% of dry matter for example.
In Italian literally means ‘sweet’, but for cheese it is used to mean the flavours are round, neither sharp nor spicy.
Denominazione di Origine Protetta (Protected Designation of Origin) the Italian body that controls the cheese making regulations for the whole of the EU.
Used to describe cheeses with mushrooms and grassy flavours.
Spirit made from wine pressings e.g. Marc from Burgundy, as in Epoisse is washed in a Marc de Bourgogne.
The technical name for holes formed in certain cheeses after fermentation, e.g. in Swiss cheese.
Expressed as a percentage of the dry matter.
FERMIER or FARMHOUSE
A farm made cheese.
Derived from the Latin for shape, meaning the shape or mould in which it was made.
FRAIS or FRAICHE
French for cheese.
Italian for cheese.
A strong flavoured cheese made with cheese off cuts, herbs and alcohol usually comes in a pot.
Cheese dairy or shop.
Knowledgeable person who sells dairy products.
A natural mould from vegetables, Geotrichum Candidum is used to create the white fluffy rind on Bries & Camemberts. Geotrichum is also used on Goats cheeses to give the ‘brain like’ rind.
Term for describing cheeses exhibiting flavours of grass, flowers and herbs.
Mechanical cheese making.
Dutch word for cheese.
Swiss for cheese.
LACTIC or ACIDIC
A general description applied to cheese exhibiting a clean, wholesome, milky and slightly acidic flavour or aroma.
Natural sugar found in milk. Goats and sheep’s milk cheeses are better for the lactose intolerant. Cheeses over 60 days old contain only minute particles of lactose.
Part of the process of cheese making, when the cheese is stored at a certain temperature and humidity for a period of time in order to allow its flavour and texture to develop.
Generally relates to hard mountain cheeses. Displaying flavours of walnuts.
NEEDLING or PRICKING
The process of piercing a cheese with long needles in order to introduce the air necessary for certain types of fermentation, usually blue mold growth.
PATE or PASTE
The interior of the cheese.
The process of heating milk to 72 degrees C for 15 seconds in order to eliminate any disease-producing bacteria.
A mould often added to soft-ripened cheeses that promotes the growth of a white, bloomy rind as seen on Bries and Camemberts.
Mould used for many blue cheeses, especially Roquefort cheeses and resides in the caves in the South of France’s Roquefort region.
Another mould used in blue cheeses, that contains no gluten, therefore better for extreme gluten intolerant people.
Sharp or spicy in taste, usually referring to blue cheeses.
Italian for spicy, often used to describe certain goats cheese or blue cheese e.g. Gorgonzola Piccante.
Cheeses that have been pressed to further expel whey. Gouda, Beaufort and Parmigiano-Reggiano are popular examples of pressed cheeses.
Spanish for cheese.
Vegetarian rennet – created chemically using products such as fungi or thistle rather than livestock.
Calves rennet – membranes of calves’ stomachs that contains rennin.
The process of adding rennet, an enzyme that aids in coagulating milk or separating curds from whey.
When salt is added during the cheese making process to draw out liquid, enhance flavors, and stave off pathogenic bacteria growth. Different types of cheese require salting at different stages of the production process.
Italian for ‘spiced’, used to refer to cheeses that have a nuance of a spice. (such as nutmeg)
Often used to describe the flavor of goat’s milk cheese. Tangy flavors are often related to cheeses that are higher in acid.
The region or land and its environment such as the weather.
Process of heating milk to less than 160 degrees F for less than 15 seconds prior to using it for cheese making.
Toma is a soft or semi-hard Italian cow’s milk cheese.
TOMME or TOME (French)
Tomme is a type of cheese, and is a generic name given to a class of cheese produced mainly in the French alps.
Cheese that contains more than 75% fat in dry matter such as Delice de Bourgogne or Brillat Savarin.
Milk that is still in its natural state and has not undergone ant pasteurisation, which means it has not been heated past 40 degrees.
Used to describe a type of cheese that is washed periodically in a brine solution in order to promote rind growth and develop flavour.
Watery part of milk which is separated from the coagulated curds during cheese making. A by product of cheese making.